Micropress Printers Glossary.

As time and technology moves on a lot of the older print terms are becoming obsolete in the trade, and as such this glossary will be added to, and terms removed over time.

A-sizes
Main series of finished printing trimmed sizes in the ISO international paper size range.
A0 – 841 x 1189mm
A1 – 594 x 841mm
A2 – 420 x 594mm
A3 – 297 x 420mm
A4 – 210 x 297mm
A5 – 148 x 210mm
A6 – 105 x 148mm

Acetates
Clear overlay with black and/or colour type. Used for presenting covers and concepts to client.

Additive Primaries
In reproduction, red, green and blue; at an equal share of value they produce the sensation of white light.

Adhesive binding (see also Perfect Binding)
Type of thread-less binding in which the leaves of a book are held together at the binding edge by glue or synthetic adhesive (see also P.U.R. binding).

Against the Grain
folding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper.

Approved Model List
List of models that currently work with or are acceptable by client.

Artwork
Text, graphic and illustrations arranged individually or in any combination for subsequent printing. Artwork is a bit of a misnomer as they are computer-originated, and supplied as digitised data on a disk or other means of electronic data. It then goes to the Repro stage or reprographic colour separation to use its full title. This enables the separation to be printed in the four basic printing process colours (cyan, magenta, yellow and black).

Ascender
In typesetting, the part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body, as in the letter “d”.

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This is a standard coding system within the computer industry to convert keyboard input into digital information. It covers all of the printable characters in normal use and control characters such as carriage return and line feed. The full table contains 127 elements.

Author’s Corrections
Corrections made by the author on proofs, that alter the original copy. The cost of making such alterations is charged for, in contrast to printer’s errors or house corrections.

B sizes
ISO international sizes intended primarily for posters, wall charts and similar items where difference in size of the larger sheets in the A series represents too large a gap.
B0 – 1000 x 1414mm
B1 – 707 x 1000mm
B2 – 500 x 707mm
B3 – 353 x 500mm
B4 – 250 x 353mm
B5 – 176 x 250mm

Backing Up
Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.

Binding Editions
detailed documents, supplied by client, which include binding directions, cover information, ink-jet keys, postage or address information, inserts and wrap information, quantity and mailing dates.

Bimetallic
Plate in lithography, a plate used for long runs. The printing image base is usually copper and the non-printing area is aluminium or stainless steel.

Bind-in Order Forms
(a.k.a. mail order blanks or MOB’S) binds into the centre of the book or is part of the wrap cover.

Bit
In computers, the basic unit of digital information. It is a contraction of. BInary digiT (BIT).

Bit Map
In computer imaging, the electronic representation of a page, indicating the position of every possible spot from 0 to 100 and rest from other document.

Black and White
Originals or reproductions in single colour.

Blade coated mechanical
Uncoated stock is covered in a wet coating and the excess is removed by a thin flexible metal blade leaving a uniform thin gloss coating on both sides of the paper.

Blanket
In offset printing, a rubber surfaced fabric that is clamped around a plate cylinder.

Bleed
When the printed image extends beyond the trim of a page.

Blind Embossing
A design, which gives a bas-relief effect, without ink.

Block
In binding, to impress or stamp a design upon the cover. The design can be blocked in coloured inks, or metal foil.

Blowup
A photographic enlargement.

Blueprint/Blue-line
In web-offset lithography, a photo print made from stripped-up negatives or positives used to proof check the position of an image on the page and imposition generally

Bollocks
Technical term when realising an error has occurred.

Bond Paper
A grade in writing or printing paper; usually used for letterheads or business forms bugger.

BPOP
A method of packing finished printed products in which they are not wrapped in parcels but stacked onto pallets, usually turned in equal quantities. Finished pallets are then wrapped in plastic film.

Broadsheet
Any sheet in its basic size (not folded or cut); also denotes a newspaper size.

Bromide
A photographic paper used in graphic reproduction, phototypesetting on which a photographic image is created.

Bulk
Relative thickness of a sheet or sheets, for example, a bulky paper and a thin paper both of the same weight display different “bulk”.

Bugger
Technical term, usually used before Bollocks as an error first comes to light

Case
In bookbinding, the covers of a hardbound book.

CD-ROM
An acronym used for Compact Disc Read-Only-Memory. A CD-ROM drive uses the CD format as a computer storage medium.

CMYK
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black subtractive primary colours . The basic colours in the printing industry.

Coated Stock
Paper having a surface coating which produces a smooth finish.

Cold colour
In printing, a colour with, a bluish cast.

Colour Correction
Any method, such as masking, dot-etching or scanning, used to improve colour rendition.

Colour Proofing
This term describes a wide range of techniques which have been developed to reproduce full colour images from film or digital data available, prior to the actual print run; thus allowing the client, colour separation house and printer to view the “proofed” result, prior to the actual print run.

Colour Separation
In photography, the process of separating colour originals into the primary printing colour components, in negative or positive form.

Concertina fold
A method of alternate folding, so that when opened out the finished product is folded in a zigzag fashion. Rather like a, er, concertina.

Continuous Tone
A photographic image which contains gradient tones from black to white.

Contrast
The tonal gradation between the highlights, middle tone and shadows in an original or reproduction.

Crop
To eliminate portions of copy or art indicated on an original by crop marks.

Crossover
When a photograph crosses gutter from one page to another.

Curl
In paper, the distortion of a sheet due to differences in structure or coatings from one side to the other or absorption of moisture on an offset press.

Cut-Off
In web offset printing, the cut or print length.

Deckle Edge
The untrimmed feathery edges of paper formed where the pulp flows against the edge.

Demographic binding
A way of using client data to ink-jet variable data onto a brochure/catalogue/magazine on the binding line.

Densitometer
A device for measuring the colour density at a specific location on film or printed product, either by reflected or transmitted light.

Density
The degree of darkness of an image.

Descender
That part of a lower case letter which extends below the main body as in the letter q

Desktop publishing
A generic title given to the introduction of personal computers (PC) to typesetting, page composition and image handling. Adobe InDesign is the preferred software for the print industry.

Devices
Hard sell callouts (i.e. coloured boxes, price points and “extra savings”) designed to call attention to merchandise savings.

Die-Cutting
the process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes.

Diestamping
An intaglio process of printing in which the resultant impression stands out in relief above the surface of the stamped material, either coloured (using inks) or blind (that is, without colour): relief stamping.

Digital Colour Proofs
An off-press colour proof produced from digital data.

Dithering
A technique of filling the gap between two pixels with another pixel having an average value of the two to minimise the difference or add detail to smooth the result.

Dot
The individual element in both halftones and four colour process printing.

Dot Gain
In printing, a defect in which dots print larger than they should, causing darker tones and stronger colours.

Doubling
The appearance on a printed product of the non-coincidental images obtained at one impression.

Dots Per Inch (dpi)
A measure of resolution on the printed page. Most printers use a standard of 300dpi.

Drawn-on Cover
A paper book cover which is attached to the sewn book by gluing the spine.

Duotone
A two-colour halftone reproduction from a one-colour photograph.

Dummy
A sample of a proposed job made up with the actual materials and cut to the correct size to show bulk, style of binding etc. Also a complete layout of a job showing position of type matter and illustrations, margins etc.

Duplex Paper
A paper with a different colour or finish on each side.

Electrostatic Proofs
Off press colour proofs produced from film and coloured toner.

Embossing
impressing an image in relief to attain a raised surface.

First Proof
Refers to type proofs which are submitted to the client for approval.

Fit
A colloquial way of referring to the accurate position of one colour on top of another on a printed sheet.

Flexology
A relief process in which printing is done from rubber or plastic on a web-fed press using liquid inks.

Flying Imprinter
A press furnished with a special unit which allows for one plate to be changed on a press without stopping the machine. It saves time/waste and therefore cost.

Folio
The page number.

Form
In offset lithography, the assembly of pages and other images for printing.

Four-colour Process
Colour printing by means of three subtractive primary colours (yellows, magenta, cyan) and black superimposed; the colours of the original having been separated by a photographic or electronic process.

FOB
An acronym (Freight On Board) used to detail the location where an item is to ship.

FPO
An acronym (For Position Only) used in mechanical presentation to identify the crop specifications on a specific piece of composition.

Galley Proof
A proof of text before it’s made into pages.

Ganging-up
Duplicating the same image on a sheet to optimise paper utilisation.

Gathering
In binding, the assembling of folded signatures in proper sequence.

Grain
In paper making, the direction in which most fibre’s lie.

Gravure
Process in which recesses on a printing cylinder are filled with ink and the surplus removed by a blade. The paper contacts the cylinder and ‘lifts’ the ink from the recesses before depositing it on the paper. Generally used for long-run printing, e.g. magazines and catalogues, because of the high cost of the cylinders.

Grey Balance
The dot values of CMYK that produce a neutral grey.

GSM
Abbreviation of grams per square metre. A method of indicating the substance of paper or board (whatever the size of the paper/board or number of sheets in the package) on the basis of weight. If unsure about the weight, use a set of paper (or Demi to use the paper name) scales to accurately get it.

Gut-feel
Essential management tool for indepth analysis of a particular situation to come up with a rational solution, usually confirmed in its efficiency by the passage of time. In particular demand when it comes to press buying decisions.

Gutter
The blank space or inner margin from printing area to binding.

Halftone
The reproduction of continuous-tone artwork.

Hickeys
In offset lithography, spots or imperfection in the printing due to such things as dirt on the press, dried ink skin, paper particles, etc.

Impression
In printing, the pressure of a type plate or blanket as it comes in contact with paper.

Imposition
Arrangement of pages in a sequence which will read consecutively when printed sheet is folded.

In-house
Internally handles the functions of an agency or service.

Jog
To align sheets of paper into a compact pile.

Kerning
In typesetting, the space between two characters.

Keyline
In artwork, an outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc.

Kiss Impression
In printing, a very light impression, just enough to produce an image on paper.

Lamination
A plastic film bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection.

Landscape
Oblong loose or folded printed sheet, or book, having its long sides at head and foot.

Laser
Light amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation – a fine beam of light, sometimes with considerable energy, used in imagesetting, colour scanning, copy scanning, plate making, engraving and cutting and creasing form-making.

Layout
A rendering done in ink of the position and size of the art and type; completed by Art Director upon the instructions of the client.

Leaders
In composition, rows of dashes or dots to guide the eye across the page; used in tabular work, programs, tables of contents, etc.

Leading
In composition, the distance between lines of type, measured in points.

Limp Cover
A flexible book cover, as distinct from a stiff board cover.

Lithographic printing
A process in which the printing and non-printing surfaces are on the same plane and the substrate makes contact with the whole surface. The printing part of the surface is treated to receive and transmit ink to the paper, usually via a blanket, the non-printing surface is treating to attract water and thus rejects ink from the ink roller, which touches the surface.

Long grain press
A press where the longest side of the finished product runs parallel to the grain of the paper.

Loose Insert
A piece of paper or card laid between the leaves of a brochure/magazine and not secured in anyway.

M
Abbreviation for a quantity of 1,000 sheets of paper.

Makeready
In printing, all work done to set up a press for printing.

Manifest
A record of all outgoing merchandise.

Matt Finish
Dull paper finish, without gloss or lustre.

Media code
Letter designated to identify each book and each version; client supplies them and lists them in the binding edition.
Machine finis

Mid Tones
The tonal range between highlights and shadows of a photograph or reproduction.

Moire
In colour process printing, the undesirable screen pattern caused by incorrect screen angles overprinting halftones.

Mottle
The spotty or uneven appearance of printing, mostly in solid areas.

Offset
In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate.

Original
The term applied to copy which is to be reproduced.

Overprinting
Double printing, printing over an area the already has been printed.

Overs
The quantity of unit production, for example, books and sheets, delivered to the customer above the net amount ordered, usually uncharged at a run-on rate; also allowance to cover wastage.

Pagination
In computerised typesetting, the process of performing page makeup automatically.

Pantone
Pantone, Pantone Matching System and PMS + are Pantone Inc’s check-standard trademarks for colour standards, colour data, colour reproduction and colour reproduction materials, and other colour related products and services, meeting its specifications, control and quality requirements.

Part Mechanical
A paper containing up to 50% mechanical pulp, the remainder being chemical pulp.

Perfect Bound
A way of adhesive binding multi-section jobs. Individual sections are collected together and the spine is ground off (typically 3mm). Glue is then applied to the spine and a cover pulled on before the product is trimmed to size.

Perfecting Press
A printing press that prints both sides of the paper in one pass through the press.

Pica
Printer’s unit of measurement used in typesetting; one pica equals approximately 1/6 of an inch.

Pick-up Page
An exact pickup page is a page that is picked up intact from a previous book, with no additional devices, no change in photos, crop marks, etc.

Piling
In printing, the building up or caking of ink on rollers, plate or blanket; not also, the accumulation of paper dust or coating on the blanket of offset press.

Pixel
In electronic imaging, a basic unit of digital imaging.

Plate Cylinder
The cylinder of a press on which the plate is mounted.

Portrait
An upright, oblong artwork or photograph where vertical dimension is greater than the horizontal.

PostScript
A page description language (PDL) developed by Adobe, which describes the contents and layout of a page. PostScript also serves as a programming language whereby the PostScript code is executed by a PostScript RIP in the output device in order to produce a printout or film containing the page.

Pre-Press
All procedures (and costs) associated with bringing a job to press, without actually producing a copy.

Press Proofs
In colour reproduction, a proof of a colour subject made on a printing press, in advance of the production run.

Primary Colours
see Additive Primaries.

Proof
A version of a document or colour illustration produced specifically for the purpose of review prior to reproduction.

PUR Binding
Same process as perfect binding, but use a synthetic adhesive (Polyurethane React) rather than conventional glue.

Quality
The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need or requirement; also describes as “fitness for purpose” or value for money as perceived by the customer.

Ragged Left
In typesetting, type that is justified on the right margin and ragged on the left.

Ragged Right
In typesetting, type that is justified on the left margin and ragged on the right.

Ram Bundled
a way of presenting finished printed products suitable for machine enclosing, comprising copies strapped together very tightly with end-boards to make them suitable for machine inserting.

Ream
Five hundred sheets of paper.

Reel
Term used for continuous roll of printing paper.

Reel Width
Side to side dimension for a reel of paper

Register
In printing, fitting of two or more printing images in exact alignment.

Register Marks
Crosses or other targets to aid the register of two or more colours in process printing.

RGB
Red, green, blue additive primary colours.

Rotary Trimmed:
A way of trimming on-press without the copy being stationary of the time.

Right-Angle Fold/Quarter fold
In binding, two or more folds at 90 degrees to each other.

Rub off code
see media code

Run-Around
In composition, type set to fit around a picture or other design element. Also what a customers feels when the supplier they use is in a production meeting.

Saddle stitch
In binding, to fasten a booklet by wiring it through the middle fold of the sheets.

Scaling
Determining the proper size of an image to fit an area.

Scanner
An electronic device used in the making of colour and tone-corrected separations of images.

Score
To impress or indent a mark with a string or rule in the paper, to make folding easier.

Screened Print
In photography, a print with a halftone screen made from a halftone negative or by diffusion transfer.

Sealer Varnish
see UV varnish

Section
see Signature

Selective Binding
By demographically binding a printed product this data triggers the appropriate sections from a range of available sections automatically to produce a product unique to that data input (and therefore more relevant to the end recipient).

Serif
The short cross-lines at the ends of the main strokes of letters in some type faces.

Short grain press
A press where the shortest side of the finished product runs parallel to the grain of the paper.

Shrink wrap
The method of packing printed products by surrounding them with plastic, then shrinking by heat.

Signature
In printing and binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been folded.

Slurring
Image distortion caused by dragging on the printing machine.

Soft Dot
In separations, a dot is called “soft” when the halation or fringe around the dot is excessive; conversely, when the fringe is so slight as to be barely noticeable and the dot is very sharp, it is called hard.

Spine glued
A method of putting a thin line of glue into the spine of a section, allowing it to be finished on press.

Spiral Binding
A book bound with wires in spiral form inserted through holes punched along the binding.

Spot varnish
A way of highlighting an area of a page by selectively applying a varnish to it.

SRA
Paper sizes
SRA0 – 900 x 1280mm
SRA1 – 640 x 900mm
SRA2 – 450 x 640mm
SRA3 – 320 x 450mm
SRA4 – 225 x 320mm

Stock
Paper or other material to be printed.

Stochastic screening
also known as FM (Frequency Modulated) screening. With conventional halftone screening, the variable dot size formed, creates the optical illusion of various tonal values; however, the dot centre pitch distance is constant. In the case of FM screening systems, the dots are randomly distributed to create this tonal change illusion. The greater the number of dots located within a specific area, the darker the resultant tone. The dots produced in this way are usually smaller than conventional halftone dots, resulting in improved definition, although greater care and attention to detail is required in plate making stage

Substrate
The piece of material printed.

Subtractive Primaries
Yellow, magenta and cyan, the colours used for process colour printing inks. See CMYK.

Swatching/Swatchbook
A swatch is a small piece of material provided by the client (or taken from the actual merchandise), used to match the transparency to the actual colour of the merchandise.

Tack
In printing inks, the property of cohesion between particles; the separation force of
ink needed for proper transfer and trapping on a multicolour press.

Text
The copy of a page or book, as distinguished from the headings.

Tints
Mechanical shading in line areas, normally available in 5% steps from 5% to 95%.

Tolerances
The specification of acceptable variations in register, density, dot size, plate or paper thickness, concentration of chemicals and other printing parameters.

Trapping
In printing, the ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. Dry trapping is printing wet ink over dry ink. Wet trapping is printing wet ink over previously printed wet ink.

Trim Marks
In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the paper.

Undercut
in printing presses, the difference between the radius of the cylinder bearers and the cylinder body, to allow for plate (or blanket) and packing thickness.

-Up
In printing, two-up, three-up, etc., refer to material to be printed on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press capacity.

UV Varnish
A thin coating applied to a printed sheet for protection and appearance dried immediately by UV light.

Varnishing
To apply oil, synthetic, spirit, cellulose or water varnish to printed matter by hand or machine to enhance its appearance or increase its durability.

Vellum Finish
In paper making, a toothy finish which is relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration.

Vignette
An illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the un-printed paper.

Viscosity
In printing inks, a broad term encompassing the properties of tack and flow.

Warm Colour
In printing, a colour with a yellowish or reddish cast.

Web
A roll of paper used in web or rotary printing.

Web Offset
Same description as offset with ‘using a continuous web of paper’

Web Press
A press which prints on roll or web-fed paper.

Widow
In composition, a single word in a line by itself, ending a paragraph or starting a page.

Wire-0 Binding
A continuous double series of wire loops run through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.

With the Grain
Folding or feeding paper into a press parallel to the grain of paper.

Wood free
Paper free of mechanical wood pulp.

Work and Tumble
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn it over from gripper to back using the same side guide and plate to print the second side.

Work and Turn
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn it over from left to right and print the second side using the same gripper and plate but opposite side guide.

This glossary was originally produced by WebmartUK and as such is copyright www.webmartuk.com.

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